Culture 8- Indian sports and popular media

Sports and martial artsEdit

SportsEdit

Cricket was introduced to India by the British. Now it is the country’s most popular sport.

The annual Snake boat race is performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula nearPathanamthitta.

In 2011, India hosted its first Formula One Grand Prix event.

Yoga originated in India. Patañjali, in India’s ancient books, suggests yoga’s goal is to help one focus, reflect upon, know and express one’s highest self.[126][127] India’s cultural journey with yoga is now popular in many parts of the world.
Main article: Sports in India

Field hockey is the official national sport in India.[128][129] At a time when it was especially popular, the India national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men’s Hockey World Cup, and 8gold, 1 silver, and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic Games. However, field hockey in India no longer has the following that it once did.[129]

Cricket is considered the most popular sport in India.[128] The India national cricket teamwon the 1983 Cricket World Cup, the 2011 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, the 2013 ICC Champions Trophyand shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. Domestic competitions include the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and theChallenger Series. In addition, BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League, a Twenty20competition.

A large number of football is played in the Indian state of West Bengal. The city ofKolkata is the home to the largest stadium inIndia, and the second largest stadium in the world by capacity, Salt Lake Stadium. The city of joy is a centre of football activity in India and is home to top national clubs such asMohun Bagan A.C.Kingfisher East Bengal F.C.Prayag United S.C., and theMohammedan Sporting Club.[130]

Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during theGupta empire,[131][132][133][134] where its early form in the 6th century was known aschaturanga. Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include KabaddiGilli-danda, and Kho kho. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat race andKuttiyum kolum.

In 2011, India inaugurated a privately builtBuddh International Circuit, its first motor racing circuit. The 5.14-kilometre circuit is inGreater NoidaUttar Pradesh, near Delhi. The first Formula One Indian Grand Prix event was hosted here in October 2011.[135][136]

Indian martial artsEdit

Main article: Indian martial arts

One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu fromKerala. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in the 12th century BCE and is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts.[137] In this form martial arts, various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body (uzichil); a series of sharp body movements so as to gain control over various parts of the body (miapayattu); and, complex sword fighting techniques (paliyankam).[citation needed] Silambam, which was developed around 200 AD, traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India.[138] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques (kaaladi), including a variety of spinning styles. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon.[138] The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BCE and 600 CE, soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel), sword (val) and shield(kedaham).[139]

Among eastern states, Paika akhada is a martial art found in Odisha. Paika akhada, or paika akhara, roughly translates as “warrior gymnasium” or “warrior school”.[140] In ancient times, these were training schools of the peasant militia. Today’s paika akhada teach physical exercises and martial arts in addition to the paika dance, a performance art with rhythmic movements and weapons being hit in time to the drum. It incorporates acrobatic maneuvres and use of the khanda (straight sword)patta (guantlet-sword), sticks, and other weapons.

In northern India, the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental, physical and spiritual training.[141] In addition, theDhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered the bowand the arrow to be the supreme weapons. The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th-century BCE Viṣṇu Purāṇa[137] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics, the Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid on meditation (dhyāna) as a tool to remove fear, doubt and anxiety.[142]

Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. The 3rd-century BCE Yoga Sutras of Patanjali taught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one’s body, which was later used in martial arts, while various mudra finger movements were taught in Yogacara Buddhism. These elements ofyoga, as well as finger movements in the natadances, were later incorporated into various martial arts.[143] According to some historical accounts, the South Indian Buddhist monkBodhidharma was one of the main founders of the Shaolin Kungfu.[144]

Popular mediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

Main article: Television in India

Bollywood actors at International Indian Film Academy Awards, Toronto 2011

Indian television started off in 1959 in New Delhi with tests for educational telecasts.[145][146] Indian small screen programming started off in the mid-1970s. At that time there was only one national channelDoordarshan, which was government owned. 1982 saw revolution in TV programming in India, with the New Delhi Asian games, India saw the colour version of TV, that year. TheRamayana and Mahabharat were some among the popular television series produced. By the late 1980s more and more people started to own television sets. Though there was a single channel, television programming had reached saturation. Hence the government opened up another channel which had part national programming and part regional. This channel was known as DD 2 later DD Metro. Both channels were broadcast terrestrially.

In 1991, the government liberated its markets, opening them up to cable television. Since then, there has been a spurt in the number of channels available. Today, Indian small screen is a huge industry by itself, and has thousands of programmes in all the states of India. The small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind some even attaining national fame for themselves. TV soaps are extremely popular with housewives as well as working women, and even men of all kinds. Some lesser known actors have found success in Bollywood. Indian TV now has many of the same channels as Western TV, including stations such as Cartoon NetworkNickelodeonHBO,FX, and MTV India.It is also known as “Daily Soap“.

CinemaEdit

Main article: Cinema of India

Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based film industry in India.Bollywood and the other major cinematic hubs (in Bengali CinemaOriya film industry, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Punjabi and Telugu) constitute the broader Indian film industry, whose output is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced and number of tickets sold.

India has produced many cinema-makers likeSatyajit Ray, K. Vishwanath, Bapu, Ritwik GhatakGuru DuttK. VishwanathAdoor GopalakrishnanShaji N. KarunGirish KasaravalliShekhar KapoorHrishikesh MukherjeeShankar NagGirish KarnadG. V. Iyer, Maniratnam, K. Balachandhar etc. (seeIndian film directors). With the opening up of the economy in the recent years and consequent exposure to world cinema, audience tastes have been changing. In addition, multiplexes have mushroomed in most cities, changing the revenue patterns.

Indian culture concluded.

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