Kolkata is administered by several government agencies. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation
, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city’s 15 boroughs, which together encompass 141 wards.
Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. Each borough has a committee of councillors, each of whom is elected to represent a ward. By means of the borough committees, the corporation undertakes urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and municipal markets.
As Kolkata’s apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC.
The functions of the KMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation.
The Kolkata Municipal Corporation
was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 4.0 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The Kolkata Municipal Corporation supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Hooghly River;
most of it is treated and purified at the Palta pumping station located in North 24 Parganas district.
Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds inDhapa
, which is east of the town.
To promote the recycling of garbage and sewer water, agriculture in encouraged on the dumping grounds.
Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.
State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone
, Bharti Airtel
, Tata DoCoMo
, Tata Teleservices
, Virgin Mobile
, and MTS India
, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.:25–26:179
Kolkata being the first city in India to have cell phone and 4G
connectivity, the GSM
cellular coverage is extensive.
As of 2010, Kolkata has 7 percent of the total Broadband internet consumers in India; BSNL, VSNL, Tata Indicom, Sify, Airtel, and Reliance are among the main vendors.
Military and diplomatic establishments
The Ordnance Factories Board
of the Ministry of Defence
, the Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers
and the Eastern Command
of theIndian Army
are all headquartered in the city. The U.S Consulate in Calcutta
is the U.S. Department of State
‘s second oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.
The Consulate General serves the states of Bihar
, West Bengal, Sikkim
and Arunachal Pradesh
A road in Kolkata showing buses, taxis, autorickshaws and other modes of road transport
Cityside view of the new Integrated Terminal of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
Trams of Kolkata
Public transport is provided by the Kolkata Suburban Railway
, the Kolkata Metro
, and buses. The suburban rail network reaches the city’s distant suburbs. According to a 2013 survey conducted by International Association of Public Transport
, Kolkata ranks the top among the six cities surveyed in India, in terms of public transport system.
The Kolkata Metro, in operation since 1984, is the oldest underground mass transit system in India.
It spans the north–south length of the city and covers a distance of 25.1 km (16 mi).
As of 2009, five Metro rail lines were under construction.
Kolkata has four long-distance railway stations, located atHowrah
(the largest railway complex in India),Sealdah
, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India.
The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Seventeen of the Indian Railways
regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways
, Eastern Railway
and the South-Eastern Railway
Sealdah bound sub-urban train atKalyani
Buses, which are the most commonly used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators.
Kolkata is the only Indian city with a tram network, which is operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company
The slow-moving tram services are restricted to certain areas of the city. Water-logging, caused by heavy rains that fall during the summer monsoon, can interrupt transportation networks.
Hired public conveyances include auto rickshaws
, which often ply specific routes, and yellow metered taxis. Almost all of Kolkata’s taxis are antiquated Hindustan Ambassadors
by make; newer air-conditioned radio taxis
are also in service.
In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws
and hand-pulled rickshaws
are patronised by the public for short trips.
Due to its diverse and abundant public transportation, privately owned vehicles are not as common in Kolkata as in other major Indian cities.
The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years.
As of 2004, after adjusting for population density, the city’s “road space” was only 6% compared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai.
The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include Calcutta State Transport Corporation
, South Bengal State Transport Corporation
, North Bengal State Transport Corporation
, and various private operators. The city’s main bus terminals are located at Esplanade, Karunamoyee
The Kolkata–Delhi and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral
, and National Highway 34
start from the city.