Mumbai 12 – Victoria Terminus, its history, railway network and suburban system

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminu

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST)

छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस (सी.एस.टी)

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Victoria Terminus).jpg

Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is located in Mumbai

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Location within Mumbai

General information

Architectural style

Indo-Saracenic

Town or city

MumbaiMaharashtra

Country

 India

Coordinates

18.9398°N 72.8355°E

Construction started

May 1878[1][2]

Completed

May 1888[1]

Cost

1614000 (US$26,000)(at that time) Now, 2013.4 million(US$32 million)

Client

Bombay Presidency

Design and construction

Architect

Frederick William Stevens,Axel Haig

Engineer

Wilson Bell

Official name

Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus

India Mumbai Victor Grigas 2011-15.jpg

Type

Cultural

Criteria

ii, iv

Designated

2004 (28th session)

Reference no.

945

State party

 India

Region

Asia-Pacific

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
CST, Mumbai CST
मुंबई छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस (सी.एस.टी)

Indian Railways junction station

Location

Dr. Dadabhai Naoroji Road, Mumbai,Mumbai City DistrictMaharashtra

 India

Coordinates

18.9398°N 72.8355°E

Elevation

2 m

Owned by

Indian Railways

Operated by

Central Railways

Line(s)

23

Platforms

18

Connections

Bus standtaxi standMumbai Suburban Railway

Construction

Structure type

At-grade

Other information

Status

Functioning

Station code

CSTM.

Zone(s)

Central Railways (headquarters)

Division(s)

Mumbai

History

Opened

May 1888[1]

Electrified

YES

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) is aUNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station in Mumbai Maharashtra, India which serves as the headquarters of theCentral Railways. Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings, the station was built in 1887 in the Bori Bunder area of Mumbai to commemorate theGolden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The new railway station was built on the location of the Bori Bunder Station[3] and is one of the busiest railway stations in India,[4] serving as a terminal for both long-distance trains and commuter trains of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The station’s name was changed to its present one in March 1996 and it is now known simply as CST (or CSTM).

HistoryEdit

Bori Bunder (alternatively “Bori Bandar”) was one of the areas along the Eastern shore line of Mumbai, India which was used as a storehouse for goods imported and exported from Mumbai. In the area’s name, ‘Bori’ means sack and ‘Bandar’ means port or haven (in Persian); So Bori Bunder literally means a place where sacks are stored. In the 1850s, the Great Indian Peninsular Railway built its railway terminus in this area and the station took its name as Bori Bunder. On 16 April 1853 the Great Indian Peninsula Railway operated the historic first passenger train in India from Bori Bunder to Thane covering a distance of 34 km (21 mi), formally heralding the birth of the Indian Railways. The train between Bori Bunder and Thane took 57 minutes it was a distance of 35 km (22 mi) apart.

ConstructionEdit

The station was eventually rebuilt as the Victoria Terminus, named after the then reigning Queen, and has been subsequently renamed Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CSTM) after the 17th-century king. The shortened name is now CST.

The station was designed by the consulting British architect Frederick William Stevens(1848-1900). Work began in 1878. He received 1614000 (US$26,000) as the payment for his services.[1] Stevens earned the commission to construct the station after a masterpiece watercolour sketch by draughtsman Axel Haig.[1] The final design bears some resemblance to the St Pancras railway station in London.[1][5] GG Scott’s plans for Berlin’s parliament building had been published four years before, and also has marked similarities to the station’s design.[6] Crawford market is also located near CSTM.

Opening and growth as Victoria TerminusEdit

Victoria Terminus, circa 1905

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The station took ten years to complete,[5] the longest for any building of that era in Bombay.This famous architectural landmark in a Gothic-revival style was built as the headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. Since then, the station came to be known as Bombay VT.(Railway code-BBVT)

Originally intended only to house the main station and the administrative offices of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, a number of ancillary buildings have been added subsequently, all designed so as to harmonise with the main structure. A new station to handle main line traffic was erected in 1929. The original building is still in use to handle suburban traffic and is used by over three million commuters daily. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway.

RenamingEdit

In 1996, the Minister of Railways, Suresh Kalmadi, changed the name of the station to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus[7][8] in honour of Great King Chhatrapati Shivaji, founder of theMaratha Empire.

In 2008, the station was featured prominently in the Academy Award winning film, Slumdog Millionaire. In 1956, the station was also featured in the film C.I.D. during the song ‘Yei Hai Bombay Meri Jaan’.

StructureEdit

Façade of CST

The station building is designed in the HighVictorian Gothic style of architecture. The building exhibits a fusion of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Indian architecture. The skyline, turrets, pointed arches, and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. Externally, the wood carving, tiles, ornamental iron and brass railings, grills for the ticket offices, the balustrades for the grand staircases and other ornaments were the work of students at the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art. The station stands as an example of 19th century railway architectural marvels for its advanced structural and technical solutions.

The CST was constructed using high level of engineering both in terms of railway engineering and civil engineering. It is one of the first and is considered as one of the finest products of the use of industrial revolution technology merged with revival of the Gothic Revival style In India . The centrally domed office structure has a 330 feet long platform connected to a 1,200 feet long train shed, and its outline provides the skeleton plan for building. CST’s dome of dovetailed ribs, built without centering, was considered as a novel achievement of the era. The interior of the building was conceived as a series of large rooms with high ceilings. It is a utilitarian building and has had various changes required by the users, not always sympathetic. It has a C-shaped plan which is symmetrical on an east-west axis. All the sides of the building are given equal value in the design. It is crowned by a high central dome, which acts as the focal point. The dome is an octagonal ribbed structure with a colossal female figure symbolizing Progress, holding a torch pointing upwards in her right hand and a spoked wheel in her left hand. The side wings enclose the courtyard, which opens on to the street. The wings are anchored by monumental turrets at each of their four corners, which balance and frame the central dome. The façades present the appearance of well proportioned rows of windows and arches. The ornamentation in the form of statuary, bas-reliefs, and friezes is exuberant yet well controlled. The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain) and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a blend of India sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative elements. The main interiors are also decorated: the ground floor of the North Wing, known as the Star Chamber, which is still used as the booking office, is embellished with Italian marble and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and grotesques.[9]

Internally, the ceiling of the booking hall was originally painted blue, gold and strong red on a ground of rich blue with gold stars. Its walls were lined with glazed tiles made by Maw & Co of Britain.[10] Outside, there are statues representing Commerce, Agriculture, Engineering and Science, with a statue representing Progress on the central dome of the station.[10] A statue of Queen Victoria beneath the central dome has been removed.[10]

CST has 18 platforms – 7 are for locals trains and 11 are for long distance.[11]

Rumours persist that the design for Chhatrapat Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai was originally designated for Flinders Street Station. However, no convincing evidence, other than architectural similarities to other buildings in their respective cities, has been produced to support the rumour.

Plans are underway to upgrade Mumbai CST (along with Pune Jn. and Nagpur) by means of a public-private partnership.

Trains networkEdit

Mumbai CST is the largest train terminus in Mumbai. Long distance passenger trains originating from Mumbai CST are listed below.[12]

Complete departure listEdit

Train No.

Train name

Destination

11093

Mahanagari Express

Varanasi

51153

Mumbai Bhusaval Passenger

Bhusaval

22105

Indrayani Express

Pune

12859

Gitanjali Express

Howrah

17617

Tapovan Express

Huzur Sahib Nanded

12127

Mumbai Pune Intercity Express

Pune

11007

Deccan Express

Pune

10103

Mandovi Express

Madgaon

11301

Udyan Express

Bangalore Jn

12534

Pushpak Express

Lucknow

11029

Koyna Express

Kolhapur

12362

Mumbai Asansol Express

Asansol

12869

Mumbai Howrah Weekly Express

Howrah

16351

Nagarcoil Express

Nagarcoil

16339

Mumbai CST-Nagarcoil Express

Nagarcoil

16331

Mumbai CST-Trivandrum Weekly Express

Trivandrum

01075

Mumbai CST-Nagpur Special (Unreserved) Express

Nagpur

17031

Mumbai Hyderabad Express

Hyderabad

12188

Mumbai – Jabalpur Garibrath Express

Jabalpur

11041

Mumbai CST Chennai Express

Chennai

11009

Sinhagad Express

Pune

12139

Sewagram Express

Nagpur

11019

Konark Express

Bhubaneswar

15102

Mumbai CST Chhapra Express

Chhapra

16381

Mumbai Kanyakumari Express

Kanyakumari

12125

Pragati Express

Pune

11401

Nandigram Express

Nagpur

12123

Deccan Queen

Pune

12261

Mumbai CST Howrah Duronto Express

Howrah

11023

Sahyadri Express

Kolhapur

12109

Panchvati Express

Manmad

12105

Vidarbha Express

Gondia

12137

Punjab Mail

Firozpur

12111

Amravati Express

Amravati

12289

Nagpur Duronto Express

Nagpur

17411

Mahalaxmi Express

Kolhapur

12809

Mumbai Howrah Mail(via Nagpur)

Howrah

22107

Mumbai-Latur Express

Latur

17057

Devagiri Express

Secunderabad

11305

Solapur Mumbai CST Express

Solapur

12322

Mumbai Howrah Mail(via Allahabad)

Howrah

12701

Hussainsagar Express

Hyderabad

12133

Mumbai CST-Mangalore Express

Mangalore

12115

Siddheshwar Express

Solapur

51029

Mumbai – Bijapur Fast Passenger

Bijapur

51027

Mumbai – Pandharpur Fast Passenger

Pandharpur

51033

Shirdi Fast Passenger

Shirdi

10111

Konkan Kanya Express

Madgaon

12141

Mumbai Rajendranagar Patna Express

Rajendra Nagar

11027

Mumbai Chennai Mail

Chennai

Suburban networkEdit

Indian Railways Suburban Railway Logo.svg

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Mumbai Suburban Railway station

Location

Dr Dadabhai Naoroji Rd, Dhobi Talao

Coordinates

18.9398°N 72.8355°E

Owned by

Ministry of RailwaysIndian Railways

Line(s)

Central LineHarbour Line

Platforms

7

Construction

Structure type

Standard on-ground station

Other information

Station code

ST

Fare zone

Central Railways

Services

Preceding station

Mumbai Suburban Railway

Following station

Terminus

Central Line

Main Line

toward Kalyan

Terminus

Harbour Line

toward Andheri orPanvel

The network of suburban trains (locally known as locals, short for local trains) radiating out from this station is instrumental in keeping Mumbai running. The station serves long-distance trains as well as two of the suburban lines-the Central Line and the Harbour line. It is the westernmost terminus of Central Railway.

CST has 18 platforms – seven are for locals trains and 11 are for long distance.

DormitoriesEdit

Air-conditioned dormitories were inaugurated at CST on 16 April 2013 by Union Railway Minister Pawan Kumar Bansal. The facility has 58 beds for men and 20 for women.[13]

In popular cultureEdit

In films

The station has been the location of filming the “Jai Ho” song in Slumdog Millionaire;[14]and Ra.One[15] etc.

2008 Mumbai attacksEdit

Main article: 2008 Mumbai attacks

On 26 November 2008, two terrorists entered the passenger hall of the CST, opened fire and threw grenades at people. The terrorists were armed with AK-47 rifles. One of the terrorists, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire,[16][17] The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others,[17] including a police officer, Tukaram Omble; their assault ending at about 22:45.[16] The CCTV captured the attack, and the evidence was used to identify and indict Kasab.

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