Education – Technical and Vocational education in India

Technical education

Education in India is located in India

Chennai
Chennai
New Delhi
New Delhi
Guwahati
Guwahati
Kanpur
Kanpur
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Mumbai
Mumbai
Roorkee
Roorkee
Varanasi
Varanasi
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Indore
Indore
Jodhpur
Jodhpur
Mandi
Mandi
Patna
Patna
Ropar
Ropar
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Location of IITs in green and labeled, NITs in red.

Institute Main Building, IIT Kharagpur

From the first Five-year Plan onwards, India’s emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower.[63]India’s National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament.[64] At the federal level, theIndian Institutes of Technology,theIndian Institute of Space Science and Technology, the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information TechnologyRajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology are deemed of national importance.[64]

The Indian Institutes of Technology are among the nation’s premier education facilities.[64] Since 2002, Several Regional Engineering Colleges(RECs) have been converted into National Institutes of Technology giving themInstitutes of National Importance status.

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

The Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology : The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOP&NG), Government of India set up the institute at Jais, Rae Bareli district, Uttar Pradesh through an Act of Parliament. RGIPT has been accorded “Institute of National Importance” along the lines of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT),Indian Institute of Management (IIM) and National Institute of Technology(NIT). With the status of a Deemed University, the institute awards degrees in its own right.

IIT Bombay

IIT Bombay Main Building

[64] The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote common research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at theJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew Delhi.[65] Besides there are some British established colleges such as Harcourt Butler Technological Institute situated in Kanpur and King George Medical University situated in Lucknow which are important centre of higher education.

Central Universities such as Banaras Hindu UniversityJamia Millia IslamiaUniversity, Delhi UniversityMumbai UniversityUniversity of Calcutta, etc. too are pioneers of technical education in the country.

In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education are supplemented by a number of recognized Professional Engineering Societies such as

  1. Institution of Mechanical Engineers (India)
  2. Institution of Engineers (India)
  3. Institution of Chemical Engineering (India)
  4. Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineers (India)
  5. Indian Institute of Metals
  6. Institution of Industrial Engineers (India)
  7. Institute of Town Planners (India)
  8. Indian Institute of Architects
  9. Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani

that conduct Engineering/Technical Examinations at different levels(Degree and diploma) for working professionals desirous of improving their technical qualifications.

In addition to recognized institutes for technical education there are many private technical institutes such as

  1. NIIT
  2. The Tourism School

The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges increased to over 700,000 in 2011 from 550,000 in FY 2010.[66][67] However, according to one study, 75% of technical graduates and more than 85% of general graduates lack the skills needed in India’s most demanding and high-growth global industries such as information technology.[68] These high tech global information technologies companies directly or indirectly employ about 2.3 million people, less than 1% of India’s labor pool.[69] India offers one of the largest pool of technically skilled graduates in the world.

Vocational education

India’s All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) reported, in 2013, that there are more than 4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in architecture, engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town services and others. There were 1.74 million students enrolled in these schools.[70] Total annual intake capacity for technical diplomas and degrees exceeded 3.4 million in 2012.[citation needed]

According to the University Grants Commission (UGC) total enrollment in Science, Medicine, Agriculture and Engineering crossed 6.5 million in 2010. The number of women choosing engineering has more than doubled since 2001.[citation needed]

Open and distance learning

At school level, National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides opportunities for continuing education to those who missed completing school education. 1.4 million students are enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning.[citation needed] In 2012 Various state government also introduce “STATE OPEN SCHOOL” to provide distance education.[71]

At higher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance learning. It has a cumulative enrolment of about 1.5 million, serviced through 53 regional centres and 1,400 study centres with 25,000 counsellors. The Distance Education Council (DEC), an authority of IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions of correspondence courses in conventional universities. While distance education institutions have expanded at a very rapid rate, but most of these institutions need an up gradation in their standards and performance. There is a large proliferation of courses covered by distance mode without adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There is a strong need to correct these imbalances.[72]

[73] Arjun Singh Centre for Distance and Open Learning, Jamia Millia IslamiaUniversity was established with the assistance of Distance Education Council in September 2002. Major objectives of the Centre is to provide opportunities for higher education to those who are not able to draw benefits from formal system of education. The Open Learning System allows a learner to determine his pace of learning and provides education at the doorstep of the learner. The mode of transaction is through self-learning print material, supplemented by audio and video programmes. It has further scope of students accessing material through internet and various other media.

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