Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminaland Sarai Rohilla. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation(DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Gurgaon, Noidaand Ghaziabad. As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations, and several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion(US$3.4 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad,Noida, and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world’s 13th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India’s first modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometres (117.83 miles) with 142 stations, of which 35 are underground, five are at-grade, and the remainder are elevated. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion(US$3.4 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.
Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the “Metro Man” of India. He famously resigned from DMRC, taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded with the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.
Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)
The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi. The three main corridors in first phase are as follows which are expected to become operational before 2019:
- Delhi – Alwar via Gurgaon
- Delhi – Panipat via Sonepat
- Delhi – Meerut via Ghaziabad
Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.
To make the project operational NCRPB has formed a separate body named as “National Capital Region Transport Corporation on the lines of DMRC to independently formalise and monitor its progress.
Roads of 2006 and 2007
The 32-lane toll gate at the Delhi-Gurgaon border is the largest in South Asia and the second largest in Asia.
As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2, one of the highest road densities in India. It is connected to other parts of India by fiveNational Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and24. The city’s road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. “The Delhi-Faridabad Skyway”.connects Delhi with the neighbouring industrial town of Faridabad. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida. Delhi’s rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city’s transport infrastructure. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 11.2 million (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.
To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas(CNG). Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering for about 60% of the total demand. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation(DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world’s largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs betweenAmbedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.
Quick facts: Population Growth of Delhi , Census …
According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2, with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth – this made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the third-largest conurbation in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai. Dwarka Sub City, Asia’s largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Others include Christians (0.9%) &Baha’is (0.1%)
More information: Religion in Delhi …
Hinduism is Delhi’s predominant religious faith, with approximately 81% of Delhi’s population, followed byIslam(9.9%), Sikhism(5%), Jainism(1.1%), and others(1.2%). Other minority religions include Buddhism,Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Baha’ismand Judaism. Punjabi & Hindi are the most widely spoken languages in Delhi. English is the principal written language of the city and the most commonly used language for the official purposes. In addition to Hindi andEnglish, Punjabi with Gurmukhī alphabets and Urdu also have official language status in Delhi.
According a 1999–2000 estimate, the total number of people living below thepoverty line, defined as living on US$11 or less per month, in Delhi was 1,149,000, or 8.23% of the total population, compared to 27.5% of India as a whole. 52% of Delhi residents who live in slums without basic services like water, electricity, sanitation, sewage system or proper housing. In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in 35 Indian cities with populations of one million or more. The city has the highest rate of kidnapping and abduction cases with 9.3%; the national rate is 2.2%. Delhi accounts for 15.4% of crime against women in Indian cities.
Findings from surveys conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) in Delhi estimate an average of 40% of the voters in Delhi belong to the upper castes. About 12% are Brahmins, 7% are Punjabi Khatris, 7% are Rajputs, 6% belong to the Vaishya (Bania) and Jain communities and 8% are from other upper castes.Jat community, roughly 5% of Delhi’s population and located mostly in the rural parts of outer Delhi. OBC communities such as the Gujjars,Yadavs and the lower OBCs together form about 18% of Delhi’s population. The Dalit communities 17% of Delhi’s population.