Regional languages Indian Cinema

Regional industries

More information: Table: Breakdown by languages, Language …
Table: Breakdown by languages
Breakdown of 2014 Indian feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification sorted by languages.[157]
Language No. of films
Telugu 334(Digital) and 15 (celluloid), total of 349
Tamil 306(Digital) and 20 (celluloid), total of 326
Hindi 252(digital) and 11 (celluloid), total of 263
Malayalam 200(Digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 201
Marathi 117(Digital) and 43 (celluloid), total of 160
Kannada 142(Digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 143
Bengali 134(Digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 135
Bhojpuri 87(Digital) and 6 (celluloid), total of 93
Punjabi 47(Digital) and 22 (celluloid), total of 69
Gujarati 29(Digital) and 24 (celluloid), total of 53
Odia 37(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 37
Assamese 17(Digital) and 4 (celluloid), total of 21
Rajasthani 14(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 14
Chattisgarhi 13(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 13
Tulu 7(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 7
Maithali 7(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 7
Konkani 5(Digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 6
Sindhi 6(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 6
English 5(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 5
Nepali 5(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 5
Haryanvi 2(Digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 2
Others 1 each
Total 1781(Digital) and 188 (celluloid), total of 1969

Assamese cinema

Main article: Cinema of Assam

First Assamese motion picture – Joymati filmed in 1935

The Assamese language film industry traces its origins works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was also a distinguished poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese filmJoymati[158] in 1935, under the banner of Critrakala Movietone. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, had to shoulder the added responsibilities as the script writer, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60,000 rupees was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed miserably. Like so many early Indian films, the negatives and complete prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle whatever is left of the prints. [3] Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, the second picture Indramalati was filmed between 1937 and 1938 finally released in 1939. The beginning of the 21st century has seen Bollywood-style Assamese movies hitting the screen.[159]

Bengali cinema

A scene from Dena Paona, 1931 – first Bengali talkie
Main article: Cinema of West Bengal

The Bengali language cinematic tradition of Tollygunge located in West Bengal has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed.[160] Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention includeRituparno Ghosh‘s Choker Bali, starringAishwarya Rai.[161] Bengali filmmaking also includes Bengali science fictionfilms and films that focus on social issues.[162] In 1993, the Bengali industry’s net output was 57 films.[163]

The history of cinema in Bengal dates back to the 1890s, when the first “bioscopes” were shown in theatres inKolkata. Within a decade, the first seeds of the industry was sown by Hiralal Sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian eracinema when he set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre, CalcuttaMinerva Theatre, Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen’s works, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D.G.) established Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali owned production company, in 1918. However, the first Bengali Feature film, Billwamangal, was produced in 1919, under the banner ofMadan TheatreBilat Ferat was the IBFC’s first production in 1921. TheMadan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.[164]

In 1932, the name “Tollywood” was coined for the Bengali film industry due to Tollygunge rhyming with “Hollywood” and because it was the center of the Indian film industry at the time. It later inspired the name “Bollywood”, as Mumbai (then called Bombay) later overtook Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry, and many otherHollywood-inspired names.[165] The ‘Parallel Cinema’ movement began in the Bengali film industry in the 1950s. A long history has been traversed since then, with stalwarts such as Satyajit Ray,Mrinal SenRitwik Ghatak and others having earned international acclaim and securing their place in the history of filmand actors like Uttam Kumar andSoumitra Chatterjee were the greatest actor in Bengali flim industry.

Brijbhasha cinema

Main article: Brijwood

Braj Bhasha language films present Brij culture to people who is mainly a rural tongue currently, predominant in the nebulous Braj region centred aroundMathuraAgraAligarh & Hathras inWestern Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur & Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab inUttar Pradesh.The very first Brij Bhashamovie produced in India was film Brij Bhoomi (1982) which was a success throughout the country.[166] made by actor,producer & director Shiv Kumar in banner of “Ocaon Movies”,[167] Later time Brij Bhasha cinema has seen the production of some films like Jamuna KinareBrij Kau BirjuBhakta Surdas,Jesus.[168][169] Presents culture of Brij in films Krishna Tere Desh Main(Hindi),Kanha Ki Braj Bhumi,[170]Brij ki radha dwarika ke shyam[171]Bawre Nain.,[172]

Bhojpuri cinema

Main article: Bhojpuri cinema

Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to people who live in the regions of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. These films also have a large audience of like in the cities of Delhi and Mumbai due to migration to these metros from the Bhojpuri speaking region. Besides India, there is a large market for these films in other bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies, Oceania, and South America.[173]Bhojpuri language film’s history begins in 1962 with the well-received filmGanga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo(“Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari”), which was directed by Kundan Kumar.[174] Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya(“Foreigner,” 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga (“Ganges,” 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

The industry experienced a revival in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar(“My Sweetheart,” directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot the hero of that film, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom.[175] This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi(“Priest, tell me when I will marry,” 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala (“My father-in-law, the rich guy,” 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry’s rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs.[176]Although a smaller industry compared to other Indian film industries, the extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema’s visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show[177] and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City.[178]

Chhattisgarhi cinema

Main article: Chhollywood

Chhollywood was born in 1965 with the first Chhattisgarhi film Kahi Debe Sandesh (“In Black and White”) directed and produced by Manu Nayak was released.[179] It was a story of intercastelove and it is said that former Indian Prime minister Indira Gandhi watched the movie.[citation needed] Naidu[who?] wrote the lyrics for the film,[180] and two songs of the movie were sung by Indian singerMohammad Rafi. Then came the next, Niranjan Tiwari’s directed Ghar Dwar in 1971, produced by Vijay Kumar Pandey. However, both movies did not do well at the box office, and disappointed the producers. No movie was produced[clarification needed] for nearly 30 years thereafter.[181]

Gujarati cinema

Main article: Gujarati cinema

Before the arrival of talkies, there were several silent films which were closely related with Gujarati people and culture before advent of talkies. Many film directors, producers and actors who are associated with silent films were Gujarati and Parsi. There were twenty leading film company and studios owned by Gujaratis between 1913 and 1931. They were mostly located inBombay (now Mumbai). There were at least forty-four leading Gujarati directors during this period.[182]

The Gujarati cinema dates back to 9 April 1932, when the first Gujarati filmNarsinh Mehta was released.[182][183][184]Leeludi Dharti (1968) was the first colour film of Gujarati cinema.[185] After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry saw a decline. The industry is revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception.[186] In 2005, the Government of Gujaratannounced 100% entertainment tax exemption for Gujarati films.[187]

Gujarati cinema is chiefly based on scripts from mythology to history and social to political. Since its origin Gujarati cinema has experimented with stories and issues from the Indian society. The films are generally targeted at rural audience but after recent revival also caters audience with urban subjects.[182]

Hindi cinema

Main article: Bollywood

The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai—also known as [188] Bollywood—is the largest and most powerful branch that controls Indian cinema.[189]Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such asAchhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata(1959).[190] International visibility came to the industry with Raj Kapoor‘s Awaraand later in Shakti Samantha’s Aradhanastarring Rajesh Khanna and Sharmila Tagore.[191] Hindi cinema grew during the 1990s with the release of as many as 215 films.

In 1995 the Indian economy began showing sustainable annual growth, and Hindi cinema, as a commercial enterprise, grew at a growth rate of 15% annually.[23] The salary of lead stars increased greatly. Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3–4 films.[24] Institutions such as theIndustrial Development Bank of Indiaalso came forward to finance Hindi films.[24] A number of magazines such as FilmfareStardustCineblitz, etc., became popular.[192]

The audience’s reaction towards Hindi cinema is distinctive with involvement in the films by audience’s clapping, singing, reciting familiar dialogue with the actors.[193]

Kannada cinema

Main article: Sandalwood

Kannada film industry, also referred asSandalwood, is based in Bengaluru and caters mostly to the state of Karnataka.Rajkumar was eminent in Kannada film industry. In his career, he performed versatile characters and sung hundreds of songs for film and albums. Other notable Kannada and Tulu actors include VishnuvardhanAmbarish,RavichandranGirish KarnadPrakash RajShankar NagAnanth NagUpendra,DarshanSudeepGaneshShivaraj KumarPuneet Rajkumar, Kalpana, Bharathi, Jayanthi, Pandari Bai, Tara,Umashri and Ramya.

Film directors from the Kannada film industry like Girish Kasaravalli,P.Sheshadri have garnered national recognition. Other noted directors include Puttanna KanagalG. V. Iyer,Girish KarnadT. S. Nagabharana, Kesari Harvoo, UpendraYograj BhatSoori.G.K. VenkateshVijaya BhaskarRajan-NagendraHamsalekhaGurukiran,Anoop Seelin and V. Harikrishna are other noted music directors.

Kannada cinema, along with Bengali and Malayalam films, contributed simultaneously to the age of Indianparallel cinema. Some of the influential Kannada films in this genre areSamskara (based on a novel by U. R. Ananthamurthy), Chomana Dudi by B. V. KaranthTabarana KatheVamshavruksha,Kadu Kudure, HamsageetheBhootayyana Maga AyyuAccidentMaanasa Sarovara,GhatashraddhaTabarana KatheMane,KrauryaThaayi SahebaDweepaMunnudi,AtithiBeruThutturiVimukthiBettada JeevaBharath Stores.

The Government Film and Television Institute, Bangalore (formerly a part of S.J.Polytechnic) is believed as the first government institute in India to start technical courses related to films. Legends like V K MurthyGovind Nihalani etc. passed out from this institute.[194]

Konkani cinema

Main article: Konkani cinema

Konkani language films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of the smallest film industries in India with just 4 films produced in 2009.[195] Konkani language is spoken mainly in the states of GoaMaharashtra and Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Kerala. The first full length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo, released on 24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by Jerry Braganza, a native of Mapusa, under the banner of Etica Pictures.[196][197] Hence, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani Film Day.[198] Karnataka is the hub of a good number of Konkani speaking people. There is an immense Konkani literature and art in Karnataka. Several films have been noted among the Karnataka Konkani folks. Kazar (English: Marriage) is a 2009 Konkani film directed by Richard Castelino and produced by Frank Fernandes. Konkani Movie ‘Ujvaadu’ – Shedding New Light on Old Age Issues. The director and producer of the Konkani film “Ujvaadu”, Kasaragod Chinna, whose stage name is Sujeer Srinivas Rao. The pioneering Mangalorean Konkani Film is Mog Ani Maipas.

Malayalam cinema

Main article: Malayalam cinema

The Malayalam film industry, also known as Mollywood, is based in Kerala. It is considered to be the fourth largest among the film industries in India. Malayalam film industry is known for films that bridge the gap betweenparallel cinema and mainstream cinema by portraying thought-provoking social issues with top notch technical perfection but with low budgets. Filmmakers include Adoor GopalakrishnanShaji N. KarunG. AravindanK. G. GeorgePadmarajan,Sathyan AnthikadT. V. Chandran andBharathan.

Vigathakumaran, a silent movie released in 1928 produced and directed by J. C. Daniel, marked the beginning of Malayalam cinema.[199] Balan, released in 1938, was the first Malayalam “talkie“.[200][201] Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers till 1947, when the first major film studio,Udaya Studio, was established in Kerala.[202] In 1954, the film Neelakkuyilcaptured national interest by winning the President’s silver medal. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist, Uroob, and directed by P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat, it is often considered as the first authentic Malayali film.[203] Newspaper Boy, made by a group of students in 1955, was the first neo-realistic film in Malayalam.[204] Chemmeen (1965), directed by Ramu Kariat and based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, went on to become immensely popular, and became the first South Indian film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film.[205]

The period from late 1980s to early 1990s is popularly regarded as the ‘Golden Age of Malayalam Cinema’[206]with the emergence of actors Mohanlal,MammoottySuresh GopiJayaram,MuraliThilakan and Nedumudi Venuand filmmakers such as I.V. Sasi,BharathanPadmarajanK. G. George,Sathyan AnthikadPriyadarshanA. K. LohithadasSiddique-LalT. K. Rajeev Kumar and Sreenivasan. In 2014, the total number of Malayalam movies released were-1251

Marathi cinema

Main article: Marathi cinema

Marathi cinema is the films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra, India. Marathi Cinema is one of the oldest industry in Indian Cinema. In fact the pioneer of cinema in Union of India was Dadasaheb Phalke, who brought the revolution of moving images to India with his first indigenously made silent film Raja Harishchandra in 1913, which is considered by IFFI and NIFD part of Marathi cinema as it was made by a Marathi crew.

The first Marathi talkie film, Ayodhyecha Raja (produced by Prabhat Films) was released in 1932, just one year after “Alam Ara” the first Hindi talkie film. Marathi cinema has grown in recent years, with two of its films, namely “Shwaas” (2004) and “Harishchandrachi Factory” (2009), being sent as India’s official entries for the Oscars. Today the industry is based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, but it sprouted and grew first from Kolhapur and then Pune.

There are many marathi movies, the list of best films in Marathi will be very big very few can be named like ‘Sangte Aika’,’Ek Gaon Bara Bhangadi,’Pinjara’ ofV. Shantaram,’Sinhasan‘, ‘Pathlaag’ ‘Jait Re Jait‘ ‘Saamana‘, Santh Wahate Krishnamai’,’Sant Tukaram‘,’Shyamchi Aai‘ by Pralhad Keshav Atre, based on Sane Guruji’s best novel Shamchi Aai, and so on. Maharashtra has immense contribution to Bollywood as several Maharashtrian actors have brought glamour to the Indian film industry. Marathi film industry has included the work of actors including NutanTanuja,V ShantaramShriram LagooRamesh Deo and Seema DeoNana Patekar,Smita PatilMadhuri DixitSonali KulkarniSonali BendreUrmila MatondkarReema LagooLalita Pawar,Mamta KulkarniNandaPadmini KolhapureSadashiv AmrapurkarSachin KhedekarDurga Khote, and others.

Odia cinema

Main article: Cinema of Odisha

The Odia Film Industry is theBhubaneswar and Cuttack based Odia language film industry. Sometimes called Ollywood a portmanteau of the words Odia and Hollywood, although the origins of the name are disputed.[207]The first Odia talkie Sita Bibaha was made by Mohan Sunder Deb Goswami in 1936. Shreeram panda, Prashanta Nanda, Uttam Mohanty, Bijay Mohanty started the revolution in the Oriya film industry by not only securing a huge audience but also bringing in a newness in his presentation. His movies heralded in the golden era of the Odia commercial industry by bringing in freshness to Odia movies.[208] Then the first color film was made by Nagen Ray and photographed by a Pune Film Institute trained cinematographer Surendra Sahu titled “Gapa Hele Be Sata”- meaning although it is a story, it is true. But the golden phase of Odia Cinema was 1984 when two Odia films ‘Maya Miriga’ and ‘Dhare Alua’ was showcased in ‘Indian Panorama’ and Nirad Mohapatra’s ‘Maya Miriga’ was invited for the ‘Critics Week’ in Cannes. The film received ‘Best Third World Film’ award at Mannheim Film Festival, Jury Award at Hawaii and was shown at London Film Festival.

Punjabi cinema

Main article: Punjabi cinema

K.D. Mehra made the first Punjabi filmSheela (also known as Pind di Kudi). Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheila was made in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and released in Lahore, the capital of Punjab; it ran very successfully and was a hit across the province. Due to the success of this first film many more producers started making Punjabi films. As of 2009, Punjabi cinema has produced between 900 and 1,000 movies. The average number of releases per year in the 1970s was nine; in the 1980s, eight; and in the 1990s, six. In 1995, the number of films released was 11; it plummeted to seven in 1996 and touched a low of five in 1997. Since the 2000s the Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets, home grown stars as well as Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.[209] Manny Parmar made the first 3D Punjabi film,Pehchaan 3D, which released in 2013. ///

Sindhi cinema

Main article: Sindhi cinema

Though Striving hard to survive, mainly because not having a state or region to represent, Sindhi film industry has been producing movies in intervals of time. The very first Sindhi movie produced in India was 1958 film Abana which was a success throughout the country. In the later time Sindhi cinema has seen the production of some Bollywood style films like Hal ta Bhaji HaloonParewariDil Dije Dil Waran KheHo JamaloPyar Kare Dis: Feel the Power of Love and The Awakening. There are a numerous personalities from Sindhi descent who have been and are contributing in Bollywood G P SippyRamesh Sippy,Nikhil AdvaniTarun MansukhaniRitesh SidhwaniAsrani and many more.

Sherdukpen cinema

Director Songe Dorjee Thongdok introduced the first ever Indian film in the language of Sherdukpen with his film Crossing Bridges in 2014. The language and cinema is native of the north-eastern state Arunachal Pradesh. Dorjee is planning on making future films in the same language, contributing one more regional dialect to the world of Indian cinema.[210]

Tamil cinema

Main article: Kollywood

Kalidas (1931), Tamil cinema’s first talkie

M G Ramachandran, popularly known as MGR

The city once served as a base for allSouth Indian films and to date remains South India’s largest film production centre.[211]

Sivaji Ganesan became India’s first ever actor to receive an international award when he won the “Best Actor” award at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier in theLegion of Honour by the French Government in 1995.[87] Tamil cinema is also influenced by Dravidian politics,[88]with prominent film personalities like C N AnnaduraiM G RamachandranM Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa becomingChief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.[89] Tamil films are distributed to various parts of Asia, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe and Oceania.[212] The industry has inspired Tamil film-making in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada.K. B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India.[213] She was also the first person in the Indian film industry to command a salary of one lakh rupees.

Rajnikanth is referred to as “Superstar” and has since continued to hold amatinee idol status in the popular culture of South India.[214] His mannerisms and stylised delivery of dialogue in films contribute to his mass popularity and appeal.[214] After earning26 crore (US$4.1 million) for his role inSivaji (2007), he became the highest paid actor in Asia after Jackie ChanKamal Haasan made his debut in Kalathur Kannamma for which he won the President’s Gold Medal for Best Child Actor. Haasan is tied with Mammoottyand Amitabh Bachchan for the most Best Actor National Film Awards with three. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan has starred in the highest number of films submitted India for the Academy Award Best Foreign Language Film.

In Tamil films Music and songs play an important role. Critically acclaimed composers such as Ilaiyaraaja and A. R. Rahman having “international following” belong to Tamil cinema.


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